In modern life, the chair is an indispensable living tool for us, and it can be seen everywhere in our daily life. Play an irreplaceable role.
We usually cannot do without it in our work or life. The chair not only makes our life more convenient and comfortable, but also improves our work efficiency. The appearance of the chair also affected the development of our etiquette system. Especially in the ancient feudal society, the appearance of chairs is closely related to our living customs, hierarchy, and culture.
But we all know that there were no chairs for a long time in ancient times. We all know in TV dramas that people in ancient times sat on the floor without chairs. In addition, the ancient people's sitting posture was also particular, and most people did not sit for a long time without training. Kneeling requires legs together, kneeling on the ground, and then sitting on the heels. Among them, the "kneeling" posture is very uncomfortable. After a long time, the legs and feet will be numb, which is unbearable. When ministers discussed matters before, they were sitting in this posture. People are fidgeting there, but even so, they don’t dare to sit around. Because sitting posture was very particular in ancient times.
So in this issue, let’s talk about the emergence and development of ancient chairs, what kind of culture the chairs have transmitted in ancient times, and what enlightenment and significance does it have for the development of our chairs today.
1. The image of the chair
The image of the chair dates back to the Hu bed which was introduced to the north during the Han and Wei Dynasties. The introduction of Hu Bed is also closely related to the exchanges between the Han Dynasty and ethnic minorities. It spread from the Western Regions to the Guanzhong area of the Central Plains via the Silk Road business passage. The Hu bed has a wide range of applications. In daily life, office, sleeping, eating, etc. are all done in bed.
It is recorded in the "Book of the Later Han·Five Elements" that Liu Hong, the Ling Emperor of the Han Dynasty in the late Eastern Han Dynasty, "has good Hu clothing, Hu tent, Hu bed, Hu sitting".
This shows that at that time, the Hu bed was already a more common daily life item. Otherwise, how could even the emperor like it so much! The chair is transformed from the Hu bed. The relationship between the two is like twin brothers. The Hu bed only needs to add a chair back and armrests, and it becomes a chair with a little modification.
2. The origin of the name of the chair
The name "chair" originated from the Tang Dynasty. There is a record in the "Inscriptions on Sacrificial Vessels of the North Sea Altar of Jidu Temple": "Ten rope beds and four chairs inside". From this, we know that the name chair had already existed in the Tang Dynasty. The word "chair" before the Tang Dynasty was actually spoken as "carside", and "carside" refers to the fence of the car. It is a fence that people rely on when riding in a car. Later chairs were also inspired by "chairs" or "cars" in their production, which was to install fences on four-legged platforms. It is precisely because of this relationship that the name "chairs" was used. Seats are called "chairs".
However, as far as the Tang Dynasty is concerned, the appearance of the chair did not replace the traditional status of the seat. There is no widespread popularity in this period. During this period, the use of chairs was limited to wealthy and powerful people.
1. The development of high-shaped seats in the Song Dynasty
There were more and more types of chairs in Song Dynasty. At that time, there were back chairs, armchairs, armchairs, etc., and more and more people used chairs. Even a chair named after an official name appeared in the back: Taishi Chair. All these types of chairs have one thing in common, that is, they sit tall. Typical of this period is the development of tall seats. The use of tall furniture has become fashionable among the folks, and has become widely popular. For example, the shops in Zhang Zeduan's "Shanghe on the Qingming Festival" in the Song Dynasty display all kinds of tall furniture.
Song Dynasty chairs show simplicity and elegance in appearance. Its modeling structure and decoration craftsmanship have been quite mature. And in this period also appeared top spot. The top seat combines the height of the Hu bed, its easy-to-carry and foldable features with the Confucian culture's upright sitting, and the Taoist culture's elegance. The typical is the result of cultural exchange and integration.
2. The Ming Dynasty chair is simple and simple
The aesthetics in the Ming Dynasty generally tended to be simple and simple, with few complicated patterns. The shape of the chair is also the same. The shape is simple and generous, the structure is stable and reasonable, and it feels elegant, tall and stretchy, and has a strong "Ming furniture" characteristic.
Due to the economic prosperity and advocacy of Neo-Confucianism in the Ming Dynasty, a large number of literati were keen to appreciate and collect, and participated in the design of furniture. They pursue "simplicity, ecstasy" and "natural and elegant", and are meticulous in the craftsmanship of all kinds of utensils, but they oppose blindly carving and painting. The elegant and concise shape of the official hat chair is in line with this idea and has become the first choice for their spiritual sustenance.
The official hat chair belongs to the typical Ming furniture, with a concise shape, but rigorous procedures and moderate proportions. It seems plain, but it is full of ingenuity. The lines are straight and straight, with rounded squares. It shows its strength and softness. This design concept fully embodies the aesthetic concept of dynamic and static, and the combination of rigidity and softness in Chinese aesthetics.
Ming-style furniture is simple and simple, and is characterized by decoration and load-bearing parts, which can well play a role in stabilizing the structure of the furniture. It is also of great significance to the development of modern furniture.
3. Chairs in the Qing Dynasty pay attention to decoration
Due to the development of handicraft technology in the Qing Dynasty, exquisite carvings appeared on the chairs and their shapes became more colorful. Qing-style furniture has many varieties and styles that were not available in previous generations, and the styles are even more varied.
In the selection of chairs in the Qing Dynasty, Qing-style furniture admired precious hardwoods with deep color, dense texture and fine texture, and rosewood is the first choice. It demonstrates the solemn and gorgeous temperament of the furniture. In terms of structural production, in order to ensure the appearance of uniform color and texture, but also to be firm and reliable, one wood is often used in series instead of small wood splicing.
And paying attention to decoration is the most notable feature of Qing-style furniture. Artisans in the Qing Dynasty used almost all available decorative materials. Therefore, in the Qing Dynasty, the chair was not only a daily life tool for people, but also a symbol of power and status. All in all, furniture has a high artistic value in the Qing Dynasty, and its magnificent decorative effect has brought us a great visual aesthetic impact. This is also the unique charm of Qing-style furniture.
1, chairs affect our way of living
The development of ancient Chinese chairs can be summarized in four succinct words: from low to high. In the early days, the ancients all sat on the floor, and it was not until the appearance of the chair that this daily life was changed.
In ancient my country, there were no chairs and no large round tables for eating. People usually kneel down and talk, read, eat, and rest. It can be said that the primitive living conditions of the ancient Chinese are a kind of "flat style"-sitting on the ground, lying on the ground, the center of gravity of the body is not separated from the "ground".
However, since the introduction of chairs to China, it has changed the way Chinese people live. People's living style has also changed from kneeling to sitting on foot. Especially in the Song and Yuan dynasties, high-footed chairs have begun to take shape, from the royal family to the common people. After the liberation of people's legs, many important rituals and daily communication etiquette have undergone corresponding changes, and the etiquette based on "kneeling" has gradually evolved into the etiquette based on "sitting".
2. The chair is conducive to consolidating feudal rule
In ancient times, chairs did not just exist as a kind of furniture. On some occasions, it is often given a political meaning.
Before the chair appeared, people had to land on both knees, calves on the ground, and hips on calves and heels in formal occasions.
Before the Song Dynasty, when the emperor and his officials were discussing matters and the ministers bowed to the emperor, the emperor was basically kneeling. This equality in sitting postures brought the emperor and his subjects closer. At that time, the relationship between the monarch and the minister was more like a partner in business cooperation. "Kneeling" did not mean low, but a kind of respectful and reverent expression.
After the appearance of the chair, the meaning and connotation of "kneeling" have undergone major changes. The emperor sits on the chair and condescends, while the subjects kneel down on the ground. This huge inequality in etiquette makes the subjects subconsciously bow to their knees and consolidate psychologically. The notion of the supremacy of imperial power has been enslaved and the common people have been conducive to feudal rule.
3. The appearance of chairs led to the emergence of the meal system
After the appearance of the chair, people’s sitting posture has obviously risen a lot, and the body position and line of sight are different. Naturally, some high-footed furniture has become popular one after another, and the table has emerged as the times require, and has gradually become the most important thing for Chinese people to eat and read. Furniture. Before chairs appeared, it was very difficult for people to sit around a table to eat because of the low sitting posture and the low desk. Therefore, the meal system was generally used at that time. The appearance of chairs and high-footed tables laid the material foundation for sitting around and eating. People gradually began to sit around a table to eat, until the Eight Immortals table appeared, eating at a table has become a custom, and the meal sharing system is logical. It has become a meal system.
The traditional chair is rich in cultural connotation in design, gorgeous appearance, and simple and practical structure. However, there are also some problems that require us to further innovate and improve. This requires us to establish a free cultural environment. Culture has a great influence in the development of the chair
Culture influences the development of the chair to a large extent. The styles of chairs in different cultures are not the same. A free culture helps the integration of new cultures and exchanges between different cultures. Therefore, we are in order to obtain more abundant and diverse chairs. We need to develop multiculturalism and we need a relaxed and free cultural environment.
The emergence of chairs from scratch in our daily lives reflects the changes of our society. At first, the chair came from ethnic minorities and was called Hu Bed. But in the long period of development, only chairs were available. It is no longer an ordinary life tool, and it has been given more cultural connotations. Gives more meaning. The appearance of chairs has changed our way of living, changed our etiquette system, and has a great influence on the shaping of our traditional culture. It affects every aspect of our lives.